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Posts tagged ‘volcanic’

Texas Mobilizes State Militia’s To Protect Against Occupying Federal Troops

Texas Mobilizes State Militia’s To Protect Against Occupying Federal Troops


Texas demands their gold from the Fed, so the Feds amass large troop forces to march in and further occupy Texas. The governor then calls in more state militia to confront the federal troops. Sounds like a Texas Showdown in the making! Pray level heads prevail!


In the first video below, the anchors from Bloomberg are the poster anchors for how out of touch and clueless most of the mainstream media really is. I was actually embarrassed FOR the female anchor who more or less says, “Well…. word has it, there’s like some federal exercise or drill, or like, some military exercise training called Jade Helm, and Texans started thinking that like, the government was ‘out to get them…’” I wanted to scream, “AS IF?!?!”

Sadly, unlike some in the media, I don’t think she was mocking the Jade Helm fiasco one bit. Watch the first video for yourself and you tell me. I get the impression she has NO EARTHLY IDEA what is going on there. None. Zero! Zip!

In short, what is happening in Texas, is Texas intelligence got word Federal Troops were moving large forces into the state, so like he has already done once before, Governor Abbott mobilized Texas State Militia to confront the U.S Federal troops and get them to stand down. There is a growing sentiment in Texas that Texans not only want to be left alone, now they want all their gold back from the Fed too. GO TEXANS! The second video is what appears to be another massive Jade Helm Convoy of military hardware heading into Texas!

The tensions we see building are certainly worse than we’ve been led to believe, even when you consider Governor Abbott already has the State Militia keeping a watchful and skeptical eye on the Jade Helm ”exercises.” In addition to the military convoys heading in, recall that last week we learned Mobile DHS and FEMA Command Centers were just spotted in Texas at a FedEx Terminal. Those command centers seem to have a pattern of showing up at all the worst times. They usually arrive right before a false flag happens… or said another way: a MAJOR event!

Anyone recall what happened the last time a militia faced off with the Feds? Most people have never seen this, because it was NOT very publicized, but as you will see in the video below, on that occasion Obama gave the green light to shoot civilians. You can hear it from the Federal Soldiers yourself. By minute 7:00 of the video below, I could barely swallow the first time I saw it!

Blooomberg Writtes:

Texas wants its gold back from the Yankees, wherever they’re keeping it.

Governor Greg Abbott signed a law last week to build a depository for its 5,600 bars of the precious metal and, as he said in a statement, “repatriate $1 billion of gold bullion from the Federal Reserve in New York.”

The gold, it turns out, isn’t at the New York Fed — it’s in a rented vault in midtown Manhattan — and is worth about $650 million. Regardless, Texas aims to bring it home.

“We want to show off our strength and resilience,” said Giovanni Capriglione, the Republican lawmaker who sponsored the repatriation bill. “This is to be able to say, ‘Hey, listen, Texas is unique, it’s stable, it’s strong and we can show that by letting other states and individuals know that, yes, Texas has a billion dollars worth of gold. Does your state have a billion dollars worth of gold?’”

Informed that the value is about $350 million short of that, Capriglione said he was no less proud.

The gold in question isn’t the property of the state itself but of the University of Texas Investment Management Co., which oversees the second-largest academic endowment in the country.

That isn’t likely to diminish what Philip Diehl, a former director of the U.S. Mint, called “a wonderful marketing opportunity” for the state, where the electorate leans right.

For the governor and lawmakers, repatriation “makes a lot of political sense,” said Diehl, president of U.S. Money Reserve, an Austin company that sells gold. “It’s a very reasonable response to their constituents.”


Bruce Zimmerman, chief executive officer of the endowment fund, said it would be pleased to have a Texas safe for its ingots so long as the state doesn’t charge more than what the fund’s paying to lease the New York vault space, which is less than $1 million a year.

There are details to be worked out. For one, where to put the depository, a task given to the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. One possible candidate is behind a bullet-proof door in the basement of a Travis County office building, where a long-gone bank used to store safe-deposit boxes.

“When you’re talking about gold, people’s eyes light up,” said comptroller spokesman Chris Bryan. “But when you’re talking about what you need to do to house that gold, from a logistics standpoint it’s very complicated and one that we don’t have a whole lot of experience with.”

No state does; Texas would be the first to have its own gold reserves storage unit.


[Tatoott…https://youtu.be/oqGEz9IqOrE Please trust me on this one… Skip first 12 mins if u like…you’re gonna freak LOL when you here this bright young lady explain a few things about Jade II and all this crazy crap going on.]

It might also be the only one to own physical gold, according to Diehl, the former mint director. The endowment fund began buying it in 2008 as a hedge against what Zimmerman said was excess monetization by central banks.

There was little opposition to repatriation voiced during legislative debate.

“We’re not changing our currency, right?” Democratic Senator Juan “Chuy” Hinojosa asked. He was assured the greenback would still be legal tender, and voted yes.

Kirk Watson was one of four Democrats in the Senate to go the other way. Why? “Cause it’s weird,” he said.

The Senate voted 27-to-4, and the House 140-to-4.

Abbott, the Republican governor, declined to be interviewed. Neither he nor Capriglione are known as gold bugs, the detractors of central banks and governments that issue money without promising to exchange the cash for gold or silver.

The two did come up the ranks in Texas with support from the Tea Party, which has a gold-themed monetary policy. And the law does set up a framework for a system under which Texans could ultimately execute financial transactions backed by gold in the depository, including buying a house or paying taxes.


But Capriglione, who represents suburban Fort Worth, said it “isn’t some back-door way to create a Texas dollar or Texas currency.” He said getting the gold back to the Lone Star State was about security.

“Whenever you look at these economic collapses, it’s always based on consumer confidence,” he said. “It does make people feel more secure to have the gold here. It just does.”

Texas has a distrust of the federal government that befits a state that was once a country. Former Governor Rick Perry activated its National Guard last year to secure the Mexican border, saying Washington was doing a lousy job. Abbott directed state forces to monitor a U.S. military training exercise called Operation Jade Helm 15 that will take place this summer in Texas and other states. Conspiracy theorists contend it’s a scheme to round up political dissidents, impose martial law or both, claiming tunnels under Wal-Mart stores are somehow involved.

Now, in addition to keeping invaders at bay, the state will have to get ready to guard against a gold heist.

“There’s absolutely no reason to believe the state of Texas cannot protect gold as effectively as any of the other large commercial vaults around the country,” said Diehl, the former mint director. “After all, we have the Texas Rangers.”



Thank You for reading and watching. “LET FREEDOM RING” God Bless us all,

Spirit ❤

Programmed to fear it

Witness Records LAPD Handcuffing Man After Shooting Him in Head AND (Updated)

Witness Records LAPD Handcuffing Man After Shooting Him in Head AND (Updated)


A yet to be identified man was shot by two Los Angeles police officers Friday evening with the gruesome aftermath captured on video and posted to Twitter by a witness.

The incident took place around 6:45 p.m. on Los Feliz Boulevard and Tica Drive during rush hour traffic.

I just witnessed a man get his brains blown out and I have a new look on life.

— ☁GordonBombay☁ (@realfatdaddy) June 20, 2015

The horrifying and disturbing video was captured by a twitter user named Manny, who said he saw the officers fire three shots, which he initially believed to be fireworks.

The officers are seen turning over his body, revealing a massive amount of blood on the back of his head and clothing. Instead of providing medical assistance, they are seen handcuffing him. He was still alive at this point in time.

A motorist shot graphic video of the officers handcuffing the man with a visible head injury.

Witness Records LAPD Handcuffing Man After… by TATS-2-MIN-NEWS

I literally witnessed 2 cops kill a man rn

— ☁GordonBombay☁ (@realfatdaddy) June 20, 2015

“I didn’t see a weapon, he didn’t seem to hurting anyone, but I don’t know, I only heard the shots and saw he was shot in the head.” Manny told PINAC.

We asked the witness if the police or investigators have spoken to him about what he saw, and he confirmed that they have not.

According to CBS Local:

Authorities told her the suspect was taken to a hospital and is in critical condition.

According to a LAPD spokesperson, the officer stopped a man in his early 30s just before the shooting occurred.

The man, his harm allegedly wrapped up in a towel, said he needed help. As he got closer, the officer said the man was holding a gun.

“The officer got out of his vehicle and said ‘Drop the gun, drop the gun,” said a police department spokesperson.

Neighbors told Hopper they then heard three shots and lots of screaming from witnesses.

No officers were injured.

Police did not say if a weapon was recovered.

UPDATE: The Los Angeles Times reports the man shot did not have a gun, even though they shot him because he would not “drop the gun.”

The man apparently approached the officers for help, possibly because he had injured his arm or hand, which is why he had it wrapped in a towel.

He made the mistake of raising his arm to show the officers his injury, but that made them fear for their lives, which is why they opened fire.

He is still listed in critical condition and has not yet been identified.


Thank You for watching and reading. “LET FREEDOM RING” God Bless us all.

Spirit ❤


Happy Birthday Magna Carta

Happy Birthday Magna Carta

By: Paul Craig Roberts

Monday, June 15, 2015, is the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. In his book, Magna Carta, J.C. Holt, professor of medieval history, University of Cambridge, notes that three of the chapters of this ancient document still stand on the English Stature Book and that so much of what survives of the Great Charter is “concerned with individual liberty,” which “is a reflexion of the quality of the original act of 1215.”

In the 17th century Sir Edward Coke used the Great Charter of the Liberties to establish the supremacy of Parliament, the representative of the people, as the origin of law.

A number of legal scholars have made the irrelevant point that the Magna Carter protected rights of the Church, nobles, and free men who were not enserfed, a small percentage of the population in the early 13th century. We hear the same about the US Constitution–it was something the rich did for themselves. I have no sympathy for debunking human achievements that, in the end, gave ordinary people liberty.

At Runnymede in 1215 no one but the armed barons had the power and audacity to make King John submit to law. The rule of law, not the rule of the sovereign or of the executive branch in Washington acceded to by a cowardly and corrupt Congress and Supreme Court, is a human achievement that grew out of the Magna Carta over the centuries, with ups and downs of course.

Blackstone’s Commentaries in 1759 fed into the American Revolution and gave us the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

The Geneva Conventions extended the rule of law to the international arena.

Beginning with the Clinton Administration and rapidly accelerating with the George W. Bush and Obama regimes and Tony Blair in England, the US and UK governments have run roughshod over their accountability to law.

Both the US and UK in the 21st century have gone to numerous wars illegally under the Nuremberg Standard established by the US and UK following Germany’s defeat in WWII and used to execute Germans for war crimes. The US and UK claim that unlike Germany they are immune to the very international law that they themselves established in order to punish the defeated Germans. Washington and London can bomb and murder at will, but not Germany.

Both governments illegally and unconstitutionally (the UK Constitution is unwritten) spy on their citizens, and the Bush and Obama executive branches have eviscerated, with the complicity of Congress and the federal courts, the entirely of the US Constitution except for the Second Amendment, which is protected by the strong lobby of the National Rifle Association. If the gun control “progressives” have their way, nothing will be left of the US Constitution.

Washington and its European satellites have subordinated law to a political and economic hegemonic agenda. Just as under the heyday of colonialism when the West looted the non-white world, today the West loots its own. Greece is being looted as was Ireland, and Italy and Spain will not escape looting unless they renege on their debts and leave the EU.

Western capitalism is a looting mechanism. It loots labor. It loots the environment, and with the transpacific and transatlantic “partnerships” it will loot the sovereign law of countries. For example, France’s laws against GMOs become “restraints on trade” and subjects France to punitive law suits by Monsanto. If France doesn’t pay Monsanto the damages Monsanto claims, France is subject to punitive sanctions like Washington applies to Russia when Russia doesn’t do what Washington wants.

A new slave existence is being created in front of our eyes as law ceases to be a shield of peoples and becomes a weapon in the hands of government. Eight hundred years of reform is being overturned as Washington and its vassals invade, bomb, and overthrow governments that are out of step with Washington’s agenda. Formerly self-sufficient agricultural communities are becoming wage slaves for international agribusiness corporations. Everywhere privilege is rising above law and justice is being lost.

The concentration of wealth and power is reminiscent of the aristocratic era and of Rome under the Caesars. The demise of the rule of law has stripped ordinary people of security and dignity. Peoples of the world must protect themselves by acting in defense of the Great Charter’s principle that governments are accountable to law. Governments unaccountable to law are tyrannies whatever they might call themselves, no matter how exceptional and indispensable they declare themselves to be.

Monday in Westminster in London, the International Tribunal for Natural Justice is forming. If my understanding of this work of Humanitad is correct, we have a cause for hope. Perhaps the Tribunal will try the criminals of our time, almost all of which are “leaders” of Western governments, on the Internet with juries and prosecutors so that populations everywhere can witness the evil that every Western government represents.

Once the West is perceived as the evil force that it is, it will have to reform and again embrace Edward Coke’s vision of the Great Charter or become an unimportant backwater while the rest of the world goes on to better things. The world is saved once the world ceases to bow down to the American Caesar.

Post original done by: http://www.paulcraigroberts.org

Thank You for reading. “LET FREEDOM RING” God Bless us all,

Spirit ❤

The Coming Deception – Revisiting Project Blue Beam

The Coming Deception – Revisiting Project Blue Beam


Pope Francis has said that he would be willing to baptize aliens if they came to the Vatican, asking “who are we to close doors to anyone, even Martians”.
According to multiple sources within the Vatican, Pope Francis wants to avoid the long-term embarrassment that the church experienced during the time of Galileo when it was clearly revealed that the Earth was not the center of the Universe. Reportedly the Pope wants to position the Jesuit Order to incorporate a new reality which consists of the acceptance of accepting a new reality of alien existence which are telepathic  and this will form the basis between humans and advanced aliens. I believe that this is what the Bible refers to as the Great Deception.
The United Nations is announcing that Pope Francis will address the annual U.N. General Assembly of world leaders on Sept. 25 during his first papal visit to the United States.The pope earlier agreed to address a joint meeting of Congress on his visit. The upcoming September 24 speech will mark the first time that a Pope will address the United States Congress.
Many speculate that this is where the Pope will make his move to announce his “one religion initiative” and further elaborate on his belief that mankind is about to be contacted by telepathic aliens (his words, not mine). In an interview with Famiglia Cristiana, the Pope stated that he wanted to found an international body of religions under one central authority, “An United Nations of religion“.

Operation Blue Beam

For decades, NASA has developed space based weapons systems designed to penetrate every aspect of our lives and this plan is labeled as Operation Blue Beam.
The Blue Beam Project has four different steps in order to implement a new age religion, along with the roll out of a fake Antichrist at its head. Oh, I believe that we will see an Anti-Christ, but this will not be it. We must remember that the new age religion is the very foundation for the new world government, without which religion the dictatorship of the New World Order is completely impossible.
Phase 1
The first step in the NASA Blue Beam Project concerns the breakdown of all archaeological knowledge. We will see more and more fake discoveries of previous alien contact, where these new discoveries will finally explain to all people the error of all fundamental religious doctrines.
This new false doctrine will be used to make all nations believe that their religious doctrines have been misguided for centuries. Psychological preparations for that first step have already been implemented with such things as the Star Trek TV series,  the 2001 A Space Odyssey film , X Files, Falling Skies, the TV series V, and movies such as Independence Day, and District 9. All of this constitutes the psychological conditioning designed to promote a paradigm shift designed to get the public to accept an “alien” existence.
Phase 2
The second part of this deception is creating 3D holograms, sound and laser projections which will give way to several holographic images. As Steve Quayle and I discussed in our most recent interview, the HAARP type of technology now exists where entire battlefields can be projected and nobody would be the widers because, under these circumstances, nobody could distinguish fact from fiction.
Fact or Operation Blue Beam?

Fact or Operation Blue Beam?

Phase 3
Nearly a generation ago, Nick Begichdemonstrated to the European Parliament how Project HAARP could produce fake voices inside the heads of the members of Parliament in what is known as Voice to Skull technology.
Using ELF waves, HAARP can be directly projected into the brain, causing the brain to receive messages, words, and instructions HAARP can provide a way to wipe out communications over a large area, while keeping the military’s own communications systems working. HAARP can also be used for mind control.
Phase 4
Phase 4 culminates with mankind’s shared belief from the Great Deception, than an alien invasion is either under way, or is imminent and the only means of salvation is for a God-like figure, a holographic (i.e. a one-world religion God) will step in and “save” humanity. This will mark the beginning of a one-world government and a single Pagan religion like the one being called for the present Pope.
In this final  phase of the plan, it will be made clear to the people that an alien invasion is imminent and the consolidation of government, religion, military and economic institutions will be “needed” for mankind to survive
Operation Blue Beam has some basis of support from prominent elites.

Dr. Carol Rosin and Wernher Von Braun

Dr. Rosin recounts her four year association with Von Braun, and is she is quick to point out that he predicted that mankind would have a series of “boogey men” designed to manipulate mankind on the way to a New World Order.
First, Von Braun said we would fear the Russians followed by terrorists and then we would fear asteroids and then, finally, mankind would be manipulated into believing that the earth was going to be attacked by aliens. The end game from this reign of terror would be planetary unification.

Hillary Clinton and the UFO Question

Hillary Clinton was viewed at the Rockefeller Ranch holding a book by Paul Davies regarding the implications of extraterrestrial life.
Interestingly, Vince Foster, friend and advisor to President Clinton, was tasked with two missions upon Bill Clinton’s election. First, find out who killed JFK. Secondly, find out the truth behind the alien question. Foster, as all will recall, committed “suicide” under some very mysterious circumstances.

Reagan’s Alien Speech to the United Nations

In 1987, Ronald Reagan addressed the United Nations and asked what would happen to the differences in and among the nations of the earth if we were attacked by a hostile alien force.  This is that speech.


There is enough evidence here to make most reasonable  people sit up and take notice.  Blue Beam is a fall back doomsday plan which will be implemented when all else fails. Is the NWO desperate enough to engage in such a plot? I think it is likely that this plan will be implemented so long as other plans of unification (i.e. World War III) fail to materialize. And when and if this plan materializes, don’t believe a single word of it, no matter how real ET seems to be. Why not? Because this event fits under the Biblical category of “Rumors of War”. And when we are faced with this Great Deception, fall to your knees and collectively pray for God’s intervention and direction in your lives. 

Thank You for reading and watching. “LET FREEDOM RING” God Bless us all,

Spirit ❤

This blog was originally done by: http://generationnwo.blogspot.com/

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CERN Rattle The World With Volcanos Earthquakes, Not To Mention Microwave Induced Frequency

CERN Rattle The World With Volcano’s Earthquakes, Not To Mention Microwave Induced Frequency

A new study provides “incontrovertible evidence” that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter, researchers report.

volcanic super-eruption




A very large 8.5 magnitude earthquake has struck Southeast of mainland Japan in the Bonin Island region. (downgraded to 7.8M)


This earthquake occurred at a depth of 696km / 432 miles, which falls deep into the Asthenosphere below the Pacific plate.

Worthy to note that an earthquake forecast was issued for Japan YESTERDAY, giving full warning of a very large event coming this week.

Warning issued yesterday, 8.5M strikes today.

See the full forecast for Japan here:

By: dutchsinse

NOAA Weather Service


 Tectonic Summery

Cern activated

CERNS Quake Rattle Yellowstone ?


Cern Quake

Yellowstone Seismogram Calendar for YHR, centered on 2015/05/20 – 5/20/2015 HERE IS THE LINK http://www.isthisthingon.org/Yellowstone/seismothumbs.php?station=YHR¢er=1432098000 Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 2015 Week #18 5/3/2015 5/4/2015 5/5/2015 5/6/2015 5/7/2015 5/8/2015 5/9/2015 2015 Week #19 5/10/2015 5/11/2015 5/12/2015 5/13/2015 5/14/2015 5/15/2015 5/16/2015 2015 Week #20 5/17/2015 5/18/2015 5/19/2015 5/20/2015 5/21/2015 5/22/2015 5/23/2015 2015 Week

Read more [+]


A magnitude 4.1 earthquake has struck Southern California at Salton Sea Volcanic buttes.

Reports are coming in from viewers that this event was felt fairly strong in San Diego, CA.




Seeing a noteworthy earthquake strike near an active volcano in Southern California is a sign of the greater global seismic unrest currently underway.

It would be wise at this point (in light of the other recent Pacific earthquake activity) for the people of the West coast to at least be placed on a “watch” for possible larger movement.

Even if nothing actually ends up hitting, it is better to do what the Japanese are doing right now, which is warn the population of the possibility of a larger coming earthquake.

Certainly now we can all be on the same page that there IS a temporary increase in activity taking place in multiple locations globally, thus warnings should be issued for a general watch for normally earthquake prone areas, and give instructions to have a plan.

Keep in mind that this 4.1M earthquake struck at a location where “professionals” are concerned about a potential eruption — Salton Sea Volcano could erupt if earthquake / seismic conditions are right (their words not mine). The volcano was elevated to “active” status in 2011 based upon some kind of internal USGS technicality.

See the news report on Salton Sea eruption potential here :

Main Stream Media Confirms Possible Salton Sea… by dutchsinse

A rare magnitude 3.2 earthquake has struck South Central Utah near the dormant Markagunt volcanic plateau.

The last eruption of this volcano was nearly 1,000 years ago. (1050AD – in the early middle ages / late dark age)

markagunt-plateau-may-31-2015-volcanic-earthquakemarkagunt-plateau-earthquake-may-31-2015May 31, 2015 – Magnitude 3.2 earthquake strikes the Markagunt volcanic plateau in South Utah. The plateau is made up of multiple lava flows which extend from a cluster of long dormant volcanic cinder cones. The obvious volcanoes stand out easily, the more weathered flows to the North (near the earthquake epicenter) are much more eroded, and hard to differentiate from the surrounding mountains.

This earthquake in Utah (at a dormant volcano) immediately followed a 4.1 magnitude earthquake which struck at Salton Sea Volcano in Southern California near San Diego, CA.


The Salton Sea volcanic buttes are “active” as opposed to the long dormant Markagunt volcanoes.



For there to be two different earthquakes at two different volcanoes in the Southwest United states within about 2 hours time, this lets us know greater pressure is building on the West coast of the United States.

The greater craton pressure is putting stress on the magma chambers of a few (so far) Southwestern United States dormant volcanoes, also pressure showing up via a series of earthquakes at the fracking operation weak points in the midwest (Illinois + Kansas).

Keep watch for more activity, and at this point.. you better start looking up the coordinates of each earthquake above 3.0M on the West coast to see what resides at the location.

You can use the USGS coordinates from : http://earthquake.usgs.gov

Then use a full version of Google earth to look up the earthquake , download a copy of google earth here: http://earth.google.com


nformation on this earthquake in Utah near the Markagunt volcanoes from the USGS:

Scientific – Origin




A new study provides “incontrovertible evidence” that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter, researchers report.

The volcano ejected an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, leaving a crater (now the world’s largest volcanic lake) that is 100 kilometers long and 35 kilometers wide. Ash from the event has been found in India, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea.

right ash reflected

The bright ash reflected sunlight off the landscape, and volcanic sulfur aerosols impeded solar radiation for six years, initiating an “Instant Ice Age” that — according to evidence in ice cores taken in Greenland — lasted about 1,800 years.

During this instant ice age, temperatures dropped by as much as 16 degrees centigrade (28 degrees Fahrenheit), said University of Illinois anthropology professor Stanley Ambrose, a principal investigator on the new study with professor Martin A.J. Williams, of the University of Adelaide. Williams, who discovered a layer of Toba ash in central India in 1980, led the research.

The climactic effects of Toba have been a source of controversy for years, as is its impact on human populations.

In 1998, Ambrose proposed in the Journal of Human Evolution that the effects of the Toba eruption and the Ice Age that followed could explain the apparent bottleneck in human populations that geneticists believe occurred between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. The lack of genetic diversity among humans alive today suggests that during this time period humans came very close to becoming extinct.

To address the limited evidence of the terrestrial effects of Toba, Ambrose and his colleagues pursued two lines of research: They analyzed pollen from a marine core in the Bay of Bengal that included a layer of ash from the Toba eruption, and they looked at carbon isotope ratios in fossil soil carbonates taken from directly above and below the Toba ash in three locations in central India.

Carbon isotopes reflect the type of vegetation that existed at a given locale and time. Heavily forested regions leave carbon isotope fingerprints that are distinct from those of grasses or grassy woodlands.

Both lines of evidence revealed a distinct change in the type of vegetation in India immediately after the Toba eruption, the researchers report. The pollen analysis indicated a shift to a “more open vegetation cover and reduced representation of ferns, particularly in the first 5 to 7 centimeters above the Toba ash,” they wrote in the journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. The change in vegetation and the loss of ferns, which grow best in humid conditions, they wrote, “would suggest significantly drier conditions in this region for at least one thousand years after the Toba eruption.”

The dryness probably also indicates a drop in temperature, Ambrose said, “because when you turn down the temperature you also turn down the rainfall.”

The carbon isotope analysis showed that forests covered central India when the eruption occurred, but wooded to open grassland predominated for at least 1,000 years after the eruption.

“This is unambiguous evidence that Toba caused deforestation in the tropics for a long time,” Ambrose said. This disaster may have forced the ancestors of modern humans to adopt new cooperative strategies for survival that eventually permitted them to replace neandertals and other archaic human species, he said.

unambiguous evidence————————————–

Merdeka.com-Village Sitoluama,

Merdeka.com-Village Sitoluama, district Laguboti, Toba Samosir Regency, North Sumatra, restless with unusual occurrences. The soil on the side of the House residents put out hot steam like gas and pungent-smelling.

The alleged harmful vapors showed up on Wednesday (27/5), the right side of the home page of Purasa, about ten kilometers from the Capital town of Balige, Toba Samosir Regency.

“Hot steam like gas and pungent smells coming out of the pores of the soil it is feared to threaten the safety of local people, so we report it to the authorities,” said one resident, Purasa Silalahi on Sitoluama, Saturday (30/5).

Indeed, advanced Purasa, since three weeks the temperature around her very hot, good day or night. In fact, any House floor ceramic tile feels hot.

Feeling suspicious, the conditions he intends to dig into the ground next to his house as deep as 50 centimeters and turns to steam heat with a temperature of smoke had emerged from the pit quarry. Due to fear of minerals with the condition that he immediately covered pit again.

“Hot steam and smells made us feel afraid of the gas that can be burned, so these findings are reported directly to the head of a local village,” explains Purasa.

The village chief Sitoluama, Moppo Old Pangaribuan said, hot steam that is troubling the citizens it has reported to the environmental protection agency of Toba Samosir.

The use, on its territory there has been research on 20 years ago and there is a sign or a PIN that there is oil in the area.

“First there was the research in this area. But the results to date there has been no certainty and now all of a sudden appear in the form of gas. We hope relevant agencies can examine repeated for convenience of society, “said Mappo.

Meanwhile, the Head of the environmental agency of Toba Samosir, Parulian Siregar said, his side has continued to report the discovery of the citizens over the discovery of the hot steam that is troubling.

“We tried to coordinate with the Central Department of mines and energy of North Sumatra as well as the relevant parties to know for sure the source of steam, including handling solutions,” Parulian said.


island of Sumatra

A supervolcanic eruption thought to have nearly driven humanity extinct may not have endangered the species after all, a new investigation suggests.

Supervolcanoes are capable of eruptions dwarfing anything ever seen in recorded history, expelling thousands of times more magma and ash than even a Mount St. Helens or Pinatubo. A supervolcanic eruption could wreak as much havoc as the impact of a mile-wide asteroid,by blotting out the sun with ash, reflecting its rays and cooling the Earth — a phenomenon called a “volcanic winter.” A dozen or so supervolcanoes exist today, some of them lying at the bottom of the sea.

The largest supervolcano eruption of the past 2.5 million years was a series of explosions of Mount Toba on the Indonesian island of Sumatra about 75,000 years ago. Researchers say Toba spewed out a staggering 700 cubic miles (2,800 cubic kilometers) of magma, equivalent in mass to more than 19 million Empire State Buildings. By comparison, the infamous blast from the volcanic Indonesian island of Krakatoa in 1883, one of the largest eruptions in recorded history, released about 3 cubic miles (12 cubic km) of magma.

About the same time the eruption took place, the number of modern humans apparently dropped cataclysmically, as shown by genetic research. People today evolved from the few thousand survivors of whatever befell humans in Africa at the time. The giant plume of ash from Toba stretched from the South China Sea to the Arabian Sea, and in the past investigators proposed the resulting volcanic winter might have caused this die-off. [Countdown: History’s Most Destructive Volcanoes]

However, recently scientists have suggested that Toba did not sway the course of human history as much as previously thought. For instance, prehistoric artifacts discovered in India and dating from after the eruption hinted that people coped fairly well with any effects of the eruption.

Now researchers have found that the evidence shows Toba didn’t actually cause a volcanic winter in East Africa where humans dwelled.

“We have been able to show that the largest volcanic eruption of the last two million years did not significantly alter the climate of East Africa,” said researcher Christine Lane, a geologist at the University of Oxford.

Ash in Africa

Lane and her colleagues examined ash from Toba recovered from mud extracted from two sites at the bottom of Lake Malawi, the second largest lake in the East African Rift Valley.

“We first started looking for the Toba ash a few years back, but it’s a bit like looking for a needle in a haystack, so it took a while,” Lane told OurAmazingPlanet. “Between myself and my co-author Ben Chorn, we systematically processed every centimeter of sediment between 24 to 46 meters [78 to 150 feet] depth in the central basin core. The layer is so small that if we leave any gaps in our search, we could miss it completely.”

Their analysis discovered that a thin layer of ash in this sediment about 90 feet (27 m) below the lake floor was from the last of the Toba eruptions, known as Youngest Toba Tuff.

“The Toba super-eruption dispersed huge volumes of ash across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula and South China Sea,” Lane said. “We have discovered the layer of volcanic ash was carried about twice the distance as previously thought, over more than 7,000 kilometers [4,350 miles].”

The amount of ash found in the Malawi sediment core (a cylindrical log of sediment drilled from the ground), was more than the scientists expected to find.

“I was surprised to find so much ash in the Lake Malawi record,” Lane added. “The ash is very tiny, composed of shards of volcanic glass smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Nevertheless, in a lot of records I have worked on previously, even within just a few hundreds of miles of an eruption center, we sometimes only find less than 100 shards of glass within a gram of sediment. In Malawi, we have thousands of shards of glass per gram, which really shows how voluminous the Youngest Toba Tuff was.”

Quick recovery

If the area had seen dramatic cooling because of all the ash spewed into the atmosphere, living matter near the lake surface would likely have died off, significantly altering the composition of the lake’s mud. However, when the researchers investigated algae and other organic matter from the layer that contained the ash from Toba, they saw no evidence of a significant temperature drop in East Africa. Apparently, “the environment very quickly recovered from any atmospheric disturbance that may have occurred,” Lane said.

But these results, detailed online April 29 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, don’t mean that super-eruptions aren’t as big a risk to Earth’s denizens as previously suggested.

“It is important to realize that every volcanic eruption is different and the Youngest Toba Tuff provides only one example,” Lane said. “The impact of an eruption depends not just on the amount of ash erupted, but also the composition and volume of aerosols, how high in the atmosphere the ash is injected and the meteorological conditions at the time.”

As for what might explain the near-extinction humanity apparently once experienced, perhaps another kind of catastrophe, such as disease, hit the species. It may also be possible that such a disaster never happened in the first place — genetic research suggests modern humans descend from a single population of a few thousand survivors of a calamity, but another possible explanation is that modern humans descend from a few groups that left Africa at different times.

Future research will analyze what effects Toba may or may not have had on other lakes in East Africa.

“Whilst from this we can hypothesize that the global climatic impact was not as dramatic as some have suggested, we will need to find similarly high-resolution records of past climate from other regions that also contain Youngest Toba Tuff in order to definitively test this,” Lane said.


volcanic super-eruption

What would happen if the supervolcano at Yellowstone National Park suddenly erupted?

It’s a terrifying thought, to say the least.

The eruptions of supervolcanoes are thousands of times larger and more powerful than normal volcanoes. Though there are very few known supervolcanoes on Earth — the one that exists under Yellowstone National Park is one of the most researched and well-documented.

This supervolcano erupted three times in the distant past, with the last known caldera-forming supereruption occurring about 640,000 years ago. Each eruption drastically altered the North American geological landscape and had far-reaching impacts felt across the world.

But according to Dr. Shannon Kobs Nawotniak, a volcanologist and assistant professor with the Department of Geosciences at Idaho State University, it’s difficult to know exactly what a supervolcano eruption would look like.

“Nobody has ever seen a supervolcano erupt, and there’s never been any human documentation of an event like this occurring,” she said. “The last eruption at Yellowstone occurred long before humans came to North America.”


Continued from A1

The last time a supervolcano erupted anywhere on Earth was approximately 70,000 years ago in Lake Toba on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. This event is believed to have killed most of the humans beings living on the planet at the time. But historians and archeologists have never uncovered any human record of the eruption from that time period.

Without human documentation, geologists have had to use geological records and scientific research to piece together the events that occurred in Yellowstone 640,000 years ago.

Last month, the Associated Press reported scientists discovered a massive magma chamber underneath the supervolcano large enough to fill the Grand Canyon 11 times over. This new discovery was important because it gives researchers a better understanding of the park’s volcanic plumbing system.

With each new discovery, scientists get closer to fully understanding the mysteries of Yellowstone’s supervolcano and what to expect from a supereruption.


According to Jake Lowenstern, the scientist-in-charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, the buildup to any volcanic eruption could take weeks, months or even years. Some eruptions are quick, but some can take decades.

But the warning signs of an eruption of the Yellowstone Caldera would be apparent. Scientists at the observatory, which closely monitors the park’s volcanic system, would be the first to see the signs.

“We’d expect abundant large earthquakes, doming of the earth’s surface and rock-hurling explosions from the geothermal areas,” Lowenstern said in a written statement. “There would be way more activity than we currently observe.”

Dr. Mike McCurry, a volcanologist and professor at ISU’s Department of Geosciences, said Yellowstone would go through an “unzipping” process before a supereruption. Massive rifts would start to form in the park, and lava reservoirs would move to the surface, some potentially as large as 30 miles across.

Judging from evidence from the last supereruption, this violent movement in the Earth would be concluded by a massive eruption. The explosion would send molten rock and debris in every direction, killing and destroying everything within a 50-mile radius. The sound of the explosion would be among the loudest sounds ever heard.

From Southeast Idaho’s perspective, Nawotniak and McCurry said the eruption would look like a giant mushroom cloud filling the northern sky. Pocatello and the surrounding areas would likely be far enough away to survive the blast.

But for Southeast Idaho and the rest of the world, the worst would be yet to come.

Life and death

When the Yellowstone Caldera last erupted, it sent so much volcanic ash into the air it blanketed lands as far east as the Mississippi River.

Scientists saw the impact of volcanic ash firsthand in 1980 after the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Nawotniak said the ash from that volcanic eruption circled the globe twice in 14 days, and towns surrounding the volcano in Washington state were put at a standstill because of the ashfall.

But the volcanic ash produced from Mount St. Helens is just a fraction of what a supereruption would produce.

Nawotniak said the eruption in 1980 ejected about 0.07 cubic miles of ash. But the ash from the last supereruption in Yellowstone is estimated to have ejected over 240 cubic miles of ash.

If the Yellowstone Caldera suddenly blew, residents in Southeast Idaho would have a short time before the area became inundated with ash, so a quick escape to safer ground might be possible after the eruption.

“When the ash comes down, the problem is it doesn’t melt like snow,” Nawotniak said. “It would just sit there.”

Unlike the ash produced from small fires, the ash produced by a supervolcano would be filled with minuscule fragments of jagged rocks. This would clog up and severely damage all the machines in the area, grounding all airplanes and likely destroying automobile engines. With mechanical vehicles at a standstill, attempts at an escape or a rescue would likely fail.

Plus, the ashfall would make the air and water quality incredibly hazardous. Breathing would become very difficult for some residents, particularly those with asthma and respiratory ailments,

With aviation and rescue vehicles unable to get in or out of the area, the stranded Southeast Idaho residents who did not have access to clean water or prepackaged food would be facing a dire life and death situation.

Year without a summer

But Southeast Idaho would not be the only place dealing with the disastrous aftermath of a Yellowstone supereruption.

If the previous supereruption is any indication, much of the country’s grain belt in the American Midwest would be covered in ash as well. The ash would likely destroy most of the crops and livestock, which could lead to a famine and cause devastating economic consequences the world over.

But once the ash gets into the atmosphere and begins to circle the globe, it could hinder or completely block out sunlight for many years in areas across the world.

Historians have already seen a similar event occur within the past two centuries. In 1815, Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies erupted. At the time, it was the most powerful volcanic eruption seen on Earth in at least 1,300 years. The Northern Hemisphere witnessed a volcanic winter the following year, as ash deposits settled in the world’s atmosphere and hindered sunlight.

The effects of Mount Tambora’s eruption were felt in 1816 (nicknamed “The Year Without a Summer”). During that time, the average global temperature dropped between 0.7 and 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit, and farmers in North America and Europe dealt with massive crop failures, leading to widespread hunger and economic disaster.

In the aftermath of another Yellowstone supereruption, the world could have another so-called Year Without a Summer but on a more massive and destructive scale.

Pop culture

What are the odds of another supereruption occurring at Yellowstone in our lifetime? According to scientists, the odds are astronomically small.

“I’d be more concerned about getting killed crossing the street,” McCurry said.

But the small odds haven’t curbed the public’s fascination with the Yellowstone Caldera and supervolcanoes.

Every year, millions of visitors from around the world travel to northwest Wyoming to see the geysers, the lakes and all the other unique natural features that are byproducts of the cataclysmic eruption that occurred hundreds of thousands of years ago.

The supervolcano has even entered the realm of pop culture. The doomsday film “2012” depicted a Yellowstone Caldera eruption and its disastrous effects, while the National Geographic Channel and PBS have aired numerous documentaries on the subject during the past 10 years.

But there has also been a downside to the growing awareness of the park’s volcanic history. Every report of an earthquake or sudden geological change in the landscape in Yellowstone brings fears of an impending supereruption.

“Yes, the land changes at Yellowstone quite frequently, but that’s perfectly normal,” McCurry said.

In April 2014, the Associated Press said the National Park Service was fighting rumors of a possible supereruption after a video depicting bison allegedly running away from the supervolcano appeared on YouTube. However, a parks spokesman said the animals were actually running toward the park’s interior and the volcano.

But Nawotniak and McCurry said widespread fears of an impending supereruption could scare tourists away from Yellowstone National Park, thus causing an economic depression in the region.

There were fears that the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California was going to erupt after a strong earthquake swarm occurred in May 1980. However, the eruption never occurred, but the fears scared tourists away and caused a negative economic impact in area towns.

Nawotniak said she has had to reassure local residents at times that it is safe to visit Yellowstone.

“Luckily, the more dangerous the natural disaster, the less likely it’s going to happen,” she said.

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